Category Archives: Expository

Slides from a talk at Bridges 2021

I gave a talk on visualizations of modular forms made with Adam Sakareassen at Bridges 2021. This talk goes with our short article. In this talk, I describe the line of ideas going towards producing three dimensional visualizations of modular forms, which I like to call modular terrains. When we first wrote that talk, we were working towards the following video visualization.

We are now working in a few different directions, involving informational visualizations of different forms and different types of forms, as well as purely artistic visualizations.

The slides for this talk can be found here.

I’ve recently been very fond of including renderings based on a picture of my wife and I in Iceland (from the beforetimes). This is us as a wallpaper (preserving many of the symmetries) for a particular modular form.

I reused a few images from Painted Modular Terrains, which I made a few months ago.

If you’re interested, you might also like a few previous talks and papers of mine:

Posted in Art, Expository, Mathematics | Leave a comment

Slides from a talk on Visualizing Modular Forms

Yesterday I gave a talk at the University of Oregon Number Theory seminar on Visualizing Modular Forms. This is a spiritual successor to my paper on Visualizing modular forms that is to appear in Simons Symposia volume Arithmetic Geometry, Number Theory, and Computation.

I’ve worked with modular forms for almost 10 years now, but I’ve only known what a modular form looks like for about 2 years. In this talk, I explored visual representations of modular forms, with lots of examples.

The slides are available here.

I’ll share one visualization here that I liked a lot: a visualization of a particular Maass form on $\mathrm{SL}(2, \mathbb{Z})$.

Posted in Expository, Math.NT, Mathematics | Tagged | 1 Comment

Slides from a talk at AIM

I’m currently at an AIM workshop on Arithmetic Statistics, Discrete Restriction, and Fourier Analysis. This morning (AIM time)/afternoon (USEast time), I’ll be giving a talk on Lattice points and sums of Fourier Coefficients of modular forms.

The theme of this talk is embodied in the statement that several lattice counting problems like the Gauss circle problem are essentially the same as very modular-form-heavy problems, sometimes very closely similar and sometimes appearing slightly different.

In this talk, I describe several recent adventures, successes and travails, in my studies of problems related to the Gauss circle problem and the task of producing better bounds for the sum of the first several coefficients of holomorphic cuspforms.

Here are the slides for my talk.

I’ll note that various parts of this talk have appeared in several previous talks of mine, but since it’s the pandemic era this is the first time much of this has appeared in slides.

Posted in Expository, Math.NT, Mathematics | Leave a comment

Talk on computing Maass forms

In a remarkable coincidence, I’m giving two talks on Maass forms today (after not giving any talks for 3 months). One of these was a chalk talk (or rather camera on pen on paper talk). My other talk can be found at https://davidlowryduda.com/static/Talks/ComputingMaass20/.

In this talk, I briefly describe how one goes about computing Maass forms for congruence subgroups of $\mathrm{SL}(2)$. This is a short and pointed exposition of ideas mostly found in papers of Hejhal and Fredrik Strömberg’s PhD thesis. More precise references are included at the end of the talk.

This amounts to a description of the idea of Hejhal’s algorithm on a congruence subgroup.

Side notes on revealjs

I decided to experiment a bit with this talk. This is not a TeX-Beamer talk (as is most common for math) — instead it’s a revealjs talk. I haven’t written a revealjs talk before, but it was surprisingly easy.

It took me more time than writing a beamer talk, most likely because I don’t have a good workflow with reveal and there were several times when I wanted to use nontrivial javascript capabilities. In particular, I wanted to have a few elements transition from one slide to the next (using the automatic transition capabilities).

At first, I had thought I would write in an intermediate markup format and then translate this into revealjs, but I quickly decided against that plan. The composition stage was a bit more annoying.

But I think the result is more appealing than a beamer talk, and it’s sufficiently interesting that I’ll revisit it later.

Posted in Expository, Math.NT, Mathematics | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

The current cover art for the Proceedings of the Royal Society

The current issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society A1 features cover artwork made by Vikas Krishnamurthy, Miles Wheeler, Darren Crowdy, Adrian Constantin, and me.

Cover of Proceedings of the Royal Society AA version of the cover pre-addition is the following.

This is based on the work in A transformation between stationary point vortex equilibria, which concerns solutions to Euler’s equation for inviscid (2D) fluid motion $$ \frac{\partial \mathbf{V}}{\partial t} + (\mathbf{V} \cdot \nabla) \mathbf{V} = – \frac{\nabla p}{p_0}, $$ where $\nabla = (\partial/\partial x, \partial / \partial y)$ is the 2D gradient operator. There is a notion of vortices for these systems, and the paper examines configurations of point vortices under certain idealized conditions that leads to particularly nice analysis. In the situation studied, one can sometimes begin with one configurations of point vortices and perform a transformation that yields another, bigger and more complicated configuration.

This is the situation depicted on the cover — begin with a simple configuration and iterate the process. The spiral shape was added afterwards and doesn’t describe underlying mathematical phenomena. The different colors of each vortex shows whether that vortex is a sink or a source, essentially.

I was told most of this after the fact by Miles — who researches fluid dynamics, is a friend from grad school, and was my coauthor on a paper about the mean value theorem. I do not typically think about fluid dynamics (and did not write the paper), and it’s a bit funny how I got involved in the production of this cover. But it was fun, and we produced many arresting images. In the future Miles and I intend to revisit these images and better describe how the various aspects of the image describes and reflects the underlying mathematical behavior.

As a fun aside — we didn’t only produce one image. We made many, and we made many configurations.2 In my work on visualizing modular forms, I developed a few techniques for color selection from matplotlib style colormaps, and produced several variants. I’ve collected a few of these below.

Posted in Art, Expository, Math.CA, Mathematics | Leave a comment

Notes from a talk at Dartmouth on the Fibonacci zeta function

I recently gave a talk “at Dartmouth”1. The focus of the talk was the (odd-indexed) Fibonacci zeta function:
$$ \sum_{n \geq 1} \frac{1}{F(2n-1)^s},$$
where $F(n)$ is the nth Fibonacci number. The theme is that the Fibonacci zeta function can be recognized as coming from an inner product of automorphic forms, and the continuation of the zeta function can be understood in terms of the spectral expansion of the associated automorphic forms.

This is a talk from ongoing research. I do not yet understand “what’s really going on”. But within the talk I describe a few different generalizations; firstly, there is a generalization to other zeta functions that can be viewed as traces of units on quadratic number fields, and secondly there is a generalization to quadratic forms recognizing solutions to Pell’s equation.

I intend to describe additional ideas from this talk in the coming months, as I figure out how pieces fit together. But for now, here are the slides.

Posted in Expository, Math.NT, Mathematics | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Pictures of equidistribution – the line

In my previous note, we considered equidistribution of rational points on the circle $X^2 + Y^2 = 2$. This is but one of a large family of equidistribution results that I’m not particularly familiar with.

This note is the first in a series of notes dedicated to exploring this type of equidistribution visually. In this note, we will investigate a simpler case — rational points on the line.

(more…)

Posted in Expository, Math.AG, Math.NT, Mathematics | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Points on X^2 + Y^2 = 2 equidistribute with respect to height

When you order rational points on the circle $X^2 + Y^2 = 2$ by height, these points equidistribute.

Stated differently, suppose that $I$ is an arc on the circle $X^2 + Y^2 = 2$. Then asymptotically, the number of rational points on the arc $I$ with height bounded by a number $H$ is equal to what you would expect if $\lvert I\rvert /2\sqrt{2}\pi$ of all points with height up to $H$ were on this arc. Here, $\lvert I\rvert /2\sqrt{2}\pi$ the ratio of the arclength of the arc $I$ with the total circumference of the circle.

This only makes sense if we define the height of a rational point on the circle. Given a point $(a/c, b/c)$ (written in least terms) on the circle, we define the height of this point to be $c$.

In forthcoming work with my frequent collaborators Chan Ieong Kuan, Thomas Hulse, and Alexander Walker, we count three term arithmetic progressions of squares. If $C^2 – B^2 = B^2 – A^2$, then clearly $A^2 + C^2 = 2B^2$, and thus a 3AP of squares corresponds to a rational point on the circle $X^2 + Y^2 = 2$. We compare one of our results to what you would expect from equidistribution. From general principles, we expected such equidistribution to be true. But I wasn’t sure how to prove it.

With helpful assistance from Noam Elkies, Emmanuel Peyre, and John Voight (who each immediately knew how to prove this), I learned how to prove this fact.

The rest of this note contains this proof.

(more…)

Posted in Expository, Math.NT, Mathematics, sage, sagemath | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Notes behind a talk: visualizing modular forms

Today, I’ll be at Bowdoin College giving a talk on visualizing modular forms. This is a talk about the actual process and choices involved in illustrating a modular form; it’s not about what little lies one might hold in their head in order to form some mental image of a modular form.1

This is a talk heavily inspired by the ICERM semester program on Illustrating Mathematics (currently wrapping up). In particular, I draw on2 conversations with Frank Farris (about using color to highlight desired features), Elias Wegert (about using logarithmically scaling contours), Ed Harriss (about the choice of colorscheme), and Brendan Hassett (about overall design choices).

There are very many pictures in the talk!

Here are the slides for the talk.

I wrote a few different complex-plotting routines for this project. At their core, they are based on sage’s complex_plot. There are two major variants that I use.

The first (currently called “ccomplex_plot”. Not a good name) overwrites how sage handles lightness in complex_plot in order to produce “contours” at spots where the magnitude is a two-power. These contours are actually a sudden jump in brightness.

The second (currently called “raw_complex_plot”, also not a good name) is even less formal. It vectorizes the computation and produces an object containing the magnitude and argument information for each pixel to be drawn. It then uses numpy and matplotlib to convert these magnitudes and phases into RGB colors according to a matplotlib-compatible colormap.

I am happy to send either of these pieces of code to anyone who wants to see them, but they are very much written for my own use at the moment. I intend to improve them for general use later, after I’ve experimented further.

In addition, I generated all the images for this talk in a single sagemath jupyter notebook (with the two .spyx cython dependencies I allude to above). This is also available here. (Note that using a service like nbviewer or nbconvert to view or convert it to html might be a reasonable idea).

As a final note, I’ll add that I mistyped several times in the preparation of the images for this talk. Included below are a few of the interesting-looking mistakes. The first two resulted from incorrectly applied conformal mappings, while the third came from incorrectly applied color correction.

Posted in Expository, Math.NT, Mathematics, sage, sagemath, sagemath | Tagged , , , | 2 Comments

Notes from a talk at the Maine-Quebec Number Theory Conference

Today I will be giving a talk at the Maine-Quebec Number Theory conference. Each year that I attend this conference, I marvel at how friendly and inviting an environment it is — I highly recommend checking the conference out (and perhaps modelling other conferences after it).

The theme of my talk is about spectral poles and their contribution towards asymptotics (especially of error terms). I describe a few problems in which spectral poles appear in asymptotics. Unlike the nice simple cases where a single pole (or possibly a few poles) appear, in these cases infinite lines of poles appear.

For a bit over a year, I have encountered these and not known what to make of them. Could you have the pathological case that residues of these poles generically cancel? Could they combine to be larger than expected? How do we make sense of them?

The resolution came only very recently.1

I will later write a dedicated note to this new idea (involving Dirichlet integrals and Landau’s theorem in this context), but for now — here are the slides for my talk.

Posted in Expository, Math.NT, Mathematics | Tagged , , , | 2 Comments