# Making plots of modular forms¶

Inspired by the images and ideas of Elias Wegert, I thought it might be interesting to attempt to implement a version of his colorizing technique for complex functions in sage. The purpose is ultimately to revisit how one plots modular forms in the LMFDB (see lmfdb.org and click around to see various plots — some are good, others are less good).

The challenge is that plotting a function from $\mathbb{C} \longrightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is that the graph is naturally 4-dimensional, and we are very bad at visualizing 4d things. In fact, we want to use only 2d to visualize it.

A complex number $z = re^{i \theta}$ is determined by the magnitude ($r$) and the argument ($\theta$). Thus
one typical approach to represent the value taken by a function $f$ at a point $z$ is to represent the magnitude of $f(z)$ in terms of the brightness, and to represent the argument in terms of color.

For example, the typical complex space would then look like the following.