## A bit more about partial fraction decomposition

This is a short note written for my students in Math 170, talking about partial fraction decomposition and some potentially confusing topics that have come up. We’ll remind ourselves what partial fraction decomposition is, and unlike the text, we’ll prove it. Finally, we’ll look at some pitfalls in particular. All this after the fold.

**1. The Result Itself **

We are interested in *rational functions* and their integrals. Recall that a polynomial $latex {f(x)}$ is a function of the form $latex {f(x) = a_nx^n + a_{n-1}x^{n-1} + \cdots + a_1x + a_0}$, where the $latex {a_i}$ are constants and $latex {x}$ is our “intederminate” — and which we commonly imagine standing for a number (but this is not necessary).

Then a rational function $latex {R(x)}$ is a ratio of two polynomials $latex {p(x)}$ and $latex {q(x)}$, $$ R(x) = \frac{p(x)}{q(x)}. $$

Then the big result concerning partial fractions is the following:

If $latex {R(x) = \dfrac{p(x)}{q(x)}}$ is a rational function and the degree of $latex {p(x)}$ is less than the degree of $latex {q(x)}$, and if $latex {q(x)}$ factors into $$q(x) = (x-r_1)^{k_1}(x-r_2)^{k_2} \dots (x-r_l)^{k_l} (x^2 + a_{1,1}x + a_{1,2})^{v_1} \ldots (x^2 + a_{m,1}x + a_{m,2})^{v_m}, $$

then $latex {R(x)}$ can be written as a sum of fractions of the form $latex {\dfrac{A}{(x-r)^k}}$ or $latex {\dfrac{Ax + B}{(x^2 + a_1x + a_2)^v}}$, where in particular

- If $latex {(x-r)}$ appears in the denominator of $latex {R(x)}$, then there is a term $latex {\dfrac{A}{x – r}}$
- If $latex {(x-r)^k}$ appears in the denominator of $latex {R(x)}$, then there is a collection of terms $$ \frac{A_1}{x-r} + \frac{A_2}{(x-r)^2} + \dots + \frac{A_k}{(x-r)^k} $$
- If $latex {x^2 + ax + b}$ appears in the denominator of $latex {R(x)}$, then there is a term $latex {\dfrac{Ax + B}{x^2 + ax + b}}$
- If $latex {(x^2 + ax + b)^v}$ appears in the denominator of $latex {R(x)}$, then there is a collection of terms $$ \frac{A_1x + B_1}{x^2 + ax + b} + \frac{A_2 x + B_2}{(x^2 + ax + b)^2} + \dots \frac{A_v x + B_v}{(x^2 + ax + b)^v} $$

where in each of these, the capital $latex {A}$ and $latex {B}$ represent some constants that can be solved for through basic algebra.

I state this result this way because it is the one that leads to integrals that we can evaluate. But in principle, this theorem can be restated in a couple different ways.

Let’s parse this theorem through an example – the classic example, after the fold.